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Indian Polity For UPSC. Everything In One Article

To peruse on Indian Polity For UPSC/IAS Exam, is in this way to peruse by means of intermediary, the set of experiences, social turn of events and social-advancement in India. For example, we can’t or rather ought do whatever it takes not to isolate into slick boxes what is Polity and what is History, rather we ought to have a joining approach. Such a solidarity in approach will help in understanding complex issues and recorded as a hard copy unreservedly streaming answers. Accordingly, this tab – Indian Polity – will occasionally be refreshed with sagacious articles on Indian Polity, its different issues, and its different hypotheses and precepts.

Indian Polity – Introduction

Role of Constitution In Indian Polity

Indian Polity – Constitution Formation

Historical Background of Indian Polity & Indian Constitution

The Constituent Assembly

Factors of Constitution Formation

Indian Polity – Constitutional Features

Key Features of Indian Constitution

Other Facts of Constitution

Indian Polity- Guiding Values of the Constitution


Guiding Values of the Constitution



Indian Polity – Sources of Constitution


Major Sources

The following table illustrates the major sources of Indian Constitution −

President (Nominal Head)The United Kingdom
Cabinet System of Ministers
Parliamentary type of Government
Post of Prime Minister
Bicameral Parliament
Council of Ministers
Provision of Speaker in Lok Sabha
Rule of Law
PreambleThe United States
Fundamental Rights
Independent Judiciary
Judicial Review
Impeachment of President
Removal of Judges (of Supreme Court & High Courts)
Functions of Vice-President
Federal System (with strong Center)Canada
Residuary powers in the Center
Appointment of Governors (in states) by the Center
Advisory Jurisdiction of Supreme Court
Principle of co-operative federalismAustralia
Freedom of Inter-State trade
Trade and Commerce
Concurrent List
Joint siting of the two Houses of Parliament
Directive Principles of State PolicyIreland
Presidential Election
Nominating the members of Rajya Sabha
Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity in the Preamble
Fundamental DutiesRussia
Idea of Social, Economic, and Political Justice in Preamble
Procedure for amendmentSouth Africa
Election of Rajya Sabha members
Emergency powers to be enjoyed by the UnionGermany
Suspension of Fundamental Rights during emergency
Procedure Established by LawJapan
The federal schemeGovt. of India Act 1935
Role of federal judiciary
Office of the Governor
Emergency provisions
Public Service Commissions
Administrative details

Indian Polity – How the Constitution works


Distribution of Power

The Parliament
The Executive
The Judiciary

Indian Polity – Union & its Territory

Article 1 (1) states that India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.

Article 1 (2) states that the States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.

Article 1 (3) states that the territory of India shall comprise −

Indian Polity – Citizenship

shall be a citizen of India.

Indian Polity – Fundamental Rights


Right to Equality

Right to Freedom

Right against Exploitation

Right to Freedom of Religion

Cultural and Educational Rights

Right to Constitutional Remedies

Indian Polity- Expansion and Scope of Fundamental Rights

Indian Polity – Directive Principles


Goals of DPSP

Policies of DPSP

Non – Justifiable rights of DPSP

Difference between DPSP & FR

Indian Polity – Fundamental Duties

Under Part IV ‘A’, Article 51A of the Indian Constitution describes the following “Fundamental Duties” (i.e. the duty of every citizen of India).

Indian Polity – Union Executive


Indian System

The President

Discretionary Power

Vice President

Indian Polity – Union Legislature


Rajya Sabha

Lok Sabha

Functions of the Parliament

Special Powers of Rajya Sabha
Special Powers of Lok Sabha


Other Facts

Prime Minister and Council of Ministers

Indian Polity – Local Government


Evolution of Local Government In Indian Polity

Panchayati Raj


Indian Polity – Judiciary


Judges of Supreme Court

Jurisdictions of Supreme Court

Rights of the Supreme Court

Indian Polity – Federal System


Subjects of Federal System

Union List

State List

Concurrent List

Other Facts

Indian Polity – Center State Relation


Legislative Relations

Administrative Relations

Financial Relations

Indian Polity – Emergency Provision


National Emergency

Failure of constitutional machinery in state/s or President’s Rule

Financial Emergency

Indian Polity – Elections System


Reserved Constituencies

Voting System In Indian Polity

Nomination of Candidates

Educational Qualifications for Candidates

Election Campaign

Code of Conduct

Polling and Counting of Votes

Independent Election Commission

Role of Election Commission In Indian Polity

Acceptance of Election Outcome

Indian Polity – Political Parties


Eligibility of National Political Party


Eligibility of State Political Party


Political Party NameAbbreviationFounded inCurrent Leader
Indian National CongressINC1885Sonia Gandhi
Communist Party of IndiaCPI1925Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy
Communist Party of India (Marxist)CPI -M1964Sitaram Yechury
Bharatiya Janata PartyBJP1980Amit Shah
Bahujan Samaj PartyBSP1985Mayavati

Indian Polity – Constitutional Amendments

Indian Polity – Constitutional Schedules

Summary of all twelve schedules is illustrated in the following table −

Schedule IPart IList of the States.
Part IIList of the Union.
Schedule IIPart AProvisions as to the President and the Governors of States.
Part BRepealed
Part CProvisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State.
Part DProvisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts.
Part EProvisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
Schedule IIIForms of Oaths or Affirmations.
Schedule IVAllocation of seats in the Council of States.
Schedule VProvisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
Schedule VIProvisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
Schedule VIIList IUnion List
List IIState List
List IIIConcurrent List
Schedule VIIIList of 22 Languages − 1. Assamese 2. Bengali 3. Gujarati 4. Hindi 5. Kannada 6. Kashmiri 7. Malayalam 8. Marathi 9. Oriya 10. Punjabi 11. Sanskrit 12. Tamil 13. Telugu 14. Urdu 15. Sindhi 16. Konkani 17. Manipuri 18. Nepali 19. Santhali 20. Bodo 21. Maithili 22. Dogri Initially, there were only 14 languages, but after 21st Amendment (1967) Sindhi was added; after 71st Amendment (1992), Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali added; and after 92nd Amendment (2003), Santhali, Bodo, Maithili, and Dogri added.
Schedule IXAdded by 1st Amendment in 1951Contains acts & orders related to land tenure, land tax, railways, industries (Right of property not a fundamental right).
Schedule XAdded by 52nd Amendment in 1985Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection.
Schedule XIAdded by 73rd Amendment in 1992Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
Schedule XIIAdded by 74th Amendment in 1992Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

Indian Polity – Separation of Powers

Indian Polity – Parts of Constitution

The given table describes the details of ‘Parts’ of the Constitution of India −

Part IThe Union and its TerritoryArticle (1 to 4)
Part IICitizenshipArticle (5 to 11)
Part IIIFundamental RightsArticle (12 to 35)
Part IVDirective Principles of State PolicyArticle (36 to 51)
Part IVAFundamental DutiesArticle (51A)
Part VThe UnionArticle (52 to 151)
Part VIThe StatesArticle (152 to 237)
Part VIIThe States in Part B of The First ScheduleArticle (238)
Part VIIIThe Union TerritoriesArticle (239 to 243)
Part IXPanchayatsArticle (243 to 243O)
Part IXAMunicipalitiesArticle (243P to 243ZG)
Part XThe Schedule and Tribal AreasArticle (244 to 244A)
Part XIRelations between the Union and the StatesArticle (245 to 263)
Part XIIFinance, Property, Contracts, and SuitsArticle (264 to 300A)
Part XIIITrade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the Territory of IndiaArticle (301 to 307)
Part XIVService under the Union and the StatesArticle (308 to 323)
Part XIVATribunalsArticle (323A to 323B)
Part XVElectionsArticle (324 to 329A)
Part XVISpecial Provisions Relating to Certain ClassesArticle (330 to 342)
Part XVIIOfficial LanguageArticle (343 to 351)
Part XVIIIEmergency ProvisionsArticle (352 to 360)
Part XIXMiscellaneousArticle (361 to 367)
Part XXAmendmentArticle (368)
Part XXITemporary, Transitional, and Special ProvisionsArticle (369 to 392)
Part XXIIShort Title, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and RepealsArticle (393 to 395)

Indian Polity – International Organizations


Structure of the UNO

Functions of UN

Agencies of UN

Indian Polity – Environment & Politics


International Programs

Indian Polity – Globalization


Critics of Globalization

World Social Forum

Indian Polity – Popular Movements


Evolution of Voluntary Organizations

Indian Polity – Foreign Policy


Nehru Policy

Bilateral Agreements in Indian Polity

Nuclear Development

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